Book Review: Beyond Apollo, Barry N. Malzberg (1972)

(Roger Hane’s cover for the 1972 edition)

5/5 (Masterpiece — but please consider the caveats below before procuring a copy)

(This review is a product of lengthy dialogues with my girlfriend, a graduate student in English, who devoured the work with great relish and enthusiasm.  Her remarkable eye peeled away levels I didn’t even know existed and heightened my appreciation for this underread classic.   I owe large portions of this review to her.)

Barry N. Malzberg’s Beyond Apollo (1972), the third of his novels I’ve read (Conversations, In the Enclosure, Guernica Night), is generally considered his best work (he won the inaugural John Campbell Award for best Novel).  In a genre infrequently blessed with literary experimentation — of course, there are a few exceptions, Ballard’s The Atrocity Exhibition (1970), Joanna Russ’ The Female Man (1975), Russ’ And Chaos Died (1970), and John Brunner’s Stand on Zanzibar (1968) among others — I’m always more predisposed to works which are structurally/stylistically inventive and thought-provoking.  Barry N. Malzberg’s Beyond Apollo more than fulfills both longings.

Beyond Apollo is a masterpiece; a multi-faceted rumination on repression; a virulent critique of the space program and America’s obsession with space; a metafictional labyrinth that can, at times, be infuriatingly undefined.

Brief Plot Summary and Discussion of the Character of Harry Evans

Beyond Apollo is not a plot driven work.  A vague outline can be gathered by the ultimately cyclical 67 short chapters recounting memories, events, tellings/re-tellings/and re-tellings of re-tellings of said memories and events.  Harry Evans, the only survivor of a two-man expedition to Venus, recounts his story in an endless series of re-tellings.  The main crux of the novel surrounds the death of the Captain of the expedition whom Harry claims is insane (11).*  Was it an accident?  Was it due to some strange effect emerging from Venus?  Did Harry kill him?  Was it self-defense?  If he did kill him, how (the trash dispenser, a brute attack)?  Why (was it because of the captain’s sexual advances, was it over a game, etc)?  Evans is interred in a psychiatric institution and interrogated by authorities over the voyage and the fate of the Captain.

Critics often focus their critique on the lack of resolution concerning what actually happened on the voyage.  The reader speculates that Harry is the culprit but the “truth” is not obvious.  However, there are many hints (discussed below) that suggest that the Captain isn’t a real person at all.  Malzberg purposefully constructs the novel so that we’ll never know exactly what happened on the trip (even if one of the versions Harry describes is indeed what happened).   Not only is our anti-hero the only one to return from Venus but also it is clear that he is purposefully obfuscating or does not know the truth.  Perhaps he’s unconsciously obscuring his own memories or, paradoxically, trying to prove a point about the dangerous environment of the space program and has gone insane doing it.  Evans has definitely been scarred either due to his experience onboard the vessel or on his disastrous previous mission to Mars.  After each of his re-tellings claims that what he had previously said about Venus was a lie and that he’ll now tell the truth:

“‘Oh,” I say, “I forgot to tell you.  I mean I lied to you the first time around and now I can’t bear to lie any more because I see how crucial the information is.  The Captain never said anything about having nuclear devices.'” (40)


‘”I’m convinced,” I say. “I don’t want to live in a tube; I want to see the sun again, to receive a commendation from the President, and someday even to remarry.  Because you will agree, I really can’t live with this particular woman any more; we never got along.  So let me confess: let me tell you. Venus, it turns out, is populated by an intelligent race of malevolent green snakes.'” ( 38-39)

Two “games” are played to find out the truth.  On one level Evans is interrogated by Forrest (the psychiatrist) about the “truth” of the trip.  In other chapters Evans and the Captain play a game while on the voyage about the reason behind the Venus mission in the first place:

“the Truth must be absolutely; there must be no hedging of lying; and the game will continue until each of use either answers three questions satisfactorily or refuses to respond, in which case the persion who has asked the question will be the winner.  If there is any suspicion of lying, the one under suspicion will have exactly thirty seconds to prove his statement or lose” (28).

There are also dream conversations between Evans and the Captain (who may or may not be a manifestation of himself); dream conversations with dead relatives; dream conversations with Forrest; an unusual history of the space program up the the Venus mission; cryptograms; and lengthy interludes describing in detail Evans’ own sex life and Evan’s imagining of the Captain’s sex life.

Malzberg’s Metafictional Techniques

Malzberg’s fiction is heavily inspired by the rise of postmodernism in the mid to late 1960s (Borges, Beckett, Burroughs, Calvino, etc).  Many of the 67 fragmented chapters are about the novel that Harry Evans writes about his expedition to Venus.  The implication is that this 67 chaptered novel is indeed the version that Harry Evans wrote about the expedition of Venus.

“In the novel I plan to write of the voyage, the Captain will be a fall, grim man with piercing eyes who has no fear of space. “Onward!” I will hear him shout. “Fuck the bastards.  Fuck control base; they’re only a bunch of pimps for the politicians anyway.  We’ll make the green planet yet or plunge into the sun.  Venus forever! To Venus!  Shut off all the receivers now.  Take no messages.  Listen to nothing they have to say; they only want to lie about us to keep the administrators content.  Venus or death! (11)”

The entire work is thus what Harry Evans presents about the expedition.  In a novel that is obsessive about characters seeking the truth Malzberg layers the narrative with truth obscuring meta-narrative techniques.   There are multiple points where Malzberg has Evans explain the technique regarding assessing the truth that should be used to approach the novel.  Evans points out that novel he will write “will be able to apprehend the truth because throughout the whole sweep and scope of the book there will not be a single moment, a passage so precise and detailed that I will have to come to grips with myself and my true relation to the Captain” (110).   Yet earlier, Evans explained that “what happened can be indicated only in small flashes of light, tiny apertures which, like periscopes, will illuminate some speck of an overall situation so large that none of us can comprehend it” (47).  Thus, the scenes themselves are not specific or concrete enough to indicate exactly what happened between Evans and the Captain but does indicate the larger truth of the experience.  But, the very fact that we are reading a novel written by the character in the novel about his own experience calls even this broad statement into question.

There are distinct moments in the narrative that feel “true” as with every novel with autobiographical inspiration.  For example, a few lines in conversations with Forrest which aren’t in Evan’s dreams suggest a kernel of truth.  Three such scenes imply that the Captain and Evans are the same person.  First, Evans knows about nuclear devices on the spaceship that only the Captain knew (40).  Of course, after Evans claims that the vessel had nuclear weapons that only the Captain knew about he claims that he “made up the part about his saying we have explosives.  I made up all of it” (40).  Later in the novel Forrest asks, “‘your latest and your last chance, Colonel,” he says, “to tell us what happens.”  When he [Evans] hears the world colonel used for the first time in their relationship Evans twitches slightly but regains control of himself (61).”  A colonel in the army and air force is the same rank as a Captain in the navy.  The fact that the rank has such an effect on Evans suggests that he might indeed be the Captain.  Likewise, in one of Evan’s many anagrams — (44).  As with many of aspects of the novel, it is not entirely obvious that this is the “truth.”

Beyond Apollo is also a gendered critique on the hypermasculinity of the space program.  Even though a great majority of sci-fi writers glorify the program and proclaim the positives of our obsession with exploration, there are many stories which discuss its flaws, the damage it has on families, how it manipulates young idealists: C. M. Kornbluth’s short story, ‘The Altar at Midnight’ (1952), James Gunn’s Station on Space (1958) are great examples.  Malzberg’s goes beyond these earlier works and suggests that the space program makes hypermasculine machines out of men.  This plays out in the extensive scenes between Evans and his wife: “We have been geared for efficiency.  I begin to fuck her like a proper astronaut […]” (27).

Final Thoughts

For many sci-fi readers, this lack of concrete narrative and thus the necessary footing in order to glean “what is true/what actually happened”, will be off-putting.  Added to his devious brew created by an unreliable narrator recounting for his interviewer the events of the voyage is a heavy dose of metafictional techniques and explicit (purposefully shocking) sexuality.  Unless you are comfortable with this trifecta (and other postmodernist elements), I suggest avoiding his substantial corpus.  For the braver readers out there who enjoy sci-fi with a literary, experimental, nihilistic turn, Malzberg’s ouvre is a veritable treasure trove.

 A challenging and literary masterpiece…

*note: page numbers are from the 1982 edition.

(Tony Roberts’ cover for the 1975 edition)

(Don Maitz’s cover for the 1979 edition)

For more reviews consult the INDEX

35 thoughts on “Book Review: Beyond Apollo, Barry N. Malzberg (1972)

    • I know — they will butcher it and it will be crap. I have no expectations…. It cannot be transfered to the screen. The Lynch effect — how to butcher Dune by being trying truthful to one’s material might be the most we can expect — but still, incomprehensible.

      Thanks so much for visiting 🙂

  1. Time after time I’ve almost grabbed this one at my favorite used book store, but I always walked away because I wasn’t sure about it. Now I can’t wait to get back to the store and pick it up. Nice discussion!

    • Be prepared to be confused! Unsure of anything that happened — if anything happened at all — there’s a slight possibility that the entire Venus expedition is only a simulation 😉

  2. I finally got around to reading The Falling Astronauts a few weeks ago which is mostly realistic in its literary techniques but from the looks of it does share a lot of themes with Beyond Apollo. I was quite impressed by the novel and have a hunch I might be reading more of his in the not-too-far future.

  3. Hello I hope this is ok. I stumbled across your blog in a quest to figure out a book I read as a teen. I found it in my uncles library and I feel like its a book from the 70s. Would you be willing to look at my recollection of the plot and try to tell me what the book is. Looks like you have a pretty exhaustive knowledge of sci fi. Thanks!

    • Sure. However, I have found the forums sci-fi related on Amazon a much more effective way to figure out covers — especially if I can’t figure it out 😉

      There are also other forums online but I’d have to investigate (I think goodreads has a great forum feature).

      • Thanks for your advice and I will persue those leads too. But just on the off chance you or your readers are familiar with this book, here goes:
        Starting main character is a woman moon dweller who belongs to a technocratic race of people inhabiting the moon. These folks are at the top of the social structure/food chain. In the process of talking to an artificial intelligence (I think) some problem is identified and this woman must help solve the problem. Humans have evolved (been bio-engineered?) along different paths and some humans have evolved into food animals for the other humans, some on cold planets and some on hot planets. I remember a scene with the original protagonist observing a slaughter of the food humans and having a dawning realization that she was related to the food beasts. In the course of events I believe a food human is bred with some sort of psi ability possessing “queen ” with dark skin evolved wild on a hot planet. Eventually the original main character meets and procreates with the offspring of that union and a male baby is born to her who goes on to become second main character and solve the problem identified earlier in the story. There is a picture on the cover of a Caucasian man and one is led to believe that all the breeding has resulted in a “original” human being born. I remember the book having a 70s kind of feel with gender and sexual mores bending and a very metaphysical feel. It’s driving me kind of nuts and I thank you for your help.

        • Dear Jeremy, unfortunately, the summary doesn’t ring a bell. There’s so much sci-fi out there! However, it does sound intriguing. If one of the forums comes up with an answer be sure to let me know. I might track down a copy. I apologize.

  4. It sounds exceptional, but would you say it was the best entry Malzberg or would one of the others be better known?

    From the sound of it Malzberg deserves to be better known outside SF, not just within it.

    • Sorry I took so long to get to your comment….

      I have only read a few of his novels and short stories. In The Enclosure was very good. Coversations was more of a young adult novel and Guernica Night didn’t feel cohesive but was also a great read. The only one so far to seriously challenge Beyond Apollo is Revelations (1972) — I’ll have a review up in the next few days. Not sure if it was better — but writing the review will enable me to make a more definitive statement…

      I recommend reading a few of his novels — this one and Revelations at least 🙂

  5. Just wanted to say thanks. I read the book after reading your review and it was even better than I had expected. It reminded me of Kazuo Ishiguro’s novels.

  6. Wow! What a read! I’ve had the book on my shelf for almost two years (picked it up based on this review actually) and finally picked it up today. That narrative voice is going to haunt me for a while…this idea that the Captain and Evans are one and the same is a really interesting thought and never occurred to me as I read…it definitely fits in with the constant deferral of identity (the anagrams, etc…). I’m excited to read it again someday with this new perspective and tangle out some of the repeated images. Thanks for the recommendation!

    • Glad you enjoyed the book!

      If you liked this one, you’ll enjoy his other best works.

      Especially check out Revelations, The Gamesmen, The Falling Astronauts, The Men Inside, and Guernica Night.

  7. I own a lot of Malzberg but never got round to reading any of it. In this case the protagist seem to have the ability to “Never tell the truth when a lie will do.” and “a rare gift for obfuscation” – a similar theme (distinguishing between truth and lies) touched on with the character Garak from Deep Space Nine who tells different versions of the same story then when asked “Of all the stories you told me, which ones were true and which ones weren’t?” he replies “they’re all true” adding “especially the lies” – somewhere there’s a nugget of truth but it is so clouded in deciet and embellishment it becomes more fable/myth than the actual truth and determining which elemts are true and which are fabricated is almost impossible.

    • While I understand why Garak might come to mind, Malzberg’s characters are far less appealing — Malzberg’s narrators are sad sacks, impotent, grasping for knowledge, unable to interact successfully in their world.

      • Garak finds his place. Malzberg’s antiheroes flail and often, die…

        And, to be clear, Malzberg’s characters might not know the truth — their “lies” might not be “lies.” So no, I don’t think the comparison is terribly useful.

        Give Malzberg a read, and you’ll know what I mean.

  8. Dear Mr Boaz,

    Thank you for your Malzberg blog post.

    I have something to offer in exchange that will interest you.

    An exchange of letters with Barry.
    “Malzberg Reading Daniels Reading Malzberg.”
    The article that preceded the letter exchange.
    “Turkey in a Suitcase.”

    My best wishes to you and the rest of the Elimelech family.

    J. D. Daniels

  9. I’m glad I’m not the only one who thinks that Evans and the Captain are the same person! The clincher, for me, is in the epilogue, which seems to be a letter from a publisher agreeing to publish Evans’ narrative. There’s a line that says Evans is the “the only living human being who ever went to Venus” with an emphasis on the word “went.”

    Despite appreciating Malzberg’s experimentation and critique of the hypermasculinity of the manned space program on an intellectual level, I didn’t enjoy reading this book. Maybe I’m too repressed! Only some satire really clicks with me. Stanislaw Lem’s are my favorites. I would say “Beyond Apollo” is similar to “Memoirs Found in a Bathtub.” I don’t see any reviews of Lem in your book review index, is he on your to-read list?

    • Thanks for stopping by. Malzberg is an acquired taste for sure!

      I’ve read a big chunk of Lem’s work — before I started this site (Same thing goes with a lot of the better known “classic” SF authors such as Heinlein, Clarke, PKD, Asimov, etc.). I do not plan on returning to him anytime soon. I’ve read a few additional Lem works since then (The Futurological Congress and some of his non-fiction) but I only review a portion of what I read.

      My favorite Lem novel so far is His Master’s Voice.

  10. I think you both would enjoy his essays as well as his fiction. I can recommend ENGINES OF THE NIGHT, BREAKFAST IN THE RUINS, and THE BEND AT THE END OF THE ROAD. — I would like to add that Barry is currently recovering from an injury, is reading a New Yorker anthology from the 1940s while he convalesces, and so far has especially enjoyed John Hersey on JFK and Hiroshima. Maybe you’d like those, too. — Please keep him in your thoughts.

      • Thanks for the recommendations above Joachim and the essay recommendations J.D. Universe Day sounds particularly appealing to my tastes.

        I wish Barry a speedy recovery, I’ll keep him in my thoughts.

  11. Many thanks for your responses, Joachim! I don’t have Memories of the Space Age, but I have some of the Ballard stories that appear there. (I recently read “A Question of Re-Entry.”) I’ve looked for Beyond Apollo, but it seems rather rare.

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