Book Review: Ice, Anna Kavan (1967)

Ice

(Gene Szafran’s cover for the 1967 edition)

5/5 (Masterpiece)

“Despairingly she looked all around. She was completely encircled by the tremendous ice walls, which were made fluid by explosions of blinding light, so that they moved and changed with a continuous liquid motion, advancing in torrents of ice, avalanches as bid as oceans, flooding everywhere over the doomed world” (37)

Anna Kavan’s masterful post-apocalyptical novel Ice (1967) parallels the death throws of a relationship with the disintegration of the world.  As the unnamed narrator (N) and the girl (G) traverse an indistinct, interchangeable, world transformed by glacial encroachment, only the same movements are possible: flight, pursuit, flight, pursuit…  Repetition reinforces the profoundly unnerving feel of both physical and mental imprisonment: as movements are predicted, trauma is repeated.

Kavan described her own writings as “‘nocturnal, where dreams and reality merge” (Booth, 69).  In the prologue  to her earlier novel Sleep Has His House (1947) she explains the reason for this self-description: “Because of my fear that the daytime world would become real, I had to establish reality in another place” (quoted Booth, 78).  Kavan’s fiction is highly autobiographical and informed by her experiences in asylums, heroin addiction (she died the year after Ice was published), and psychiatric treatment (and friendship with psychiatrists) by various proponents of existential psychology.

It is hard not to see similarities with her contemporary J. G. Ballard (especially the fraught apocalyptical landscapes of The Crystal World and The Drowned World), who was a fan of her work (Booth, 70).  Francis Booth, in Amongst Those Left: The British Experimental Novel 1940-1980, points out that both Ballard’s early post-apocalyptical novels and Ice operate in ruined worlds both psychological and physical (70).

Kavan was an literary author who operated outside of SF conventions.  The novels published after she took the name Anna Kavan—from one of her earlier pseudo-autobiographical characters—were highly experimental in nature.  It should be pointed out that Kavan did not intend to write science fiction despite the fact that Brian Aldiss voted it the best SF novel of 1967 (Booth, 97).  According to Booth, most likely she had not read any of her SF contemporaries—also, many of the tropes that appear in Ice had appeared in her writing for decades (Booth, 97).

Highly recommended for fans of literary SF in the vein of early J. G. Ballard and the more radical experiments of Brian Aldiss.

Brief Plot Summary Analysis

N (the unnamed narrator) is sent back to his homeland “to investigate the rumors of a mysterious impending emergency in this part of the world” (17).  Of course, the government would not disclose the facts but he had been privately informed about a steep “rise in radioactive pollution, pointing to the explosion of a nuclear device” (38).  Whatever the exact nature of the disaster, Kavan is uninterested in laying out lengthy scientific discussions of manmade ecological transformation, a “vast ice-mass” is created that creeps unchecked across the landscape (38).  This metaphorical agent of destruction mirrors the psychological state of the characters.

N claims that “reality had always been something of an unknown quantity to me.”  Places which he once remembered are now “becoming “increasingly unconvincing and indistinct” (17).  This “general disorder” is a pervasive quality (17).  He soon gives up his aims to investigate the impending emergency and instead seeks an unnamed “girl” (G) whom at one point he had intended to marry.

For N, G is an object to possess: “I treated her like a glass girl; at times she hardly seemed real” (19).  N’s psychological state is often disturbing.  His hallucinations/dreams, which N claims are caused by drugs prescribed to combat his insomnia and headaches (2), visualize her crushed by ice, suffering, screaming: “I watched the ice climb higher, covering knees and thighs, saw her mouth open, a black hole in a white face, heard her thin, agonized scream” (18).  And, N feels no pity for her but rather feels an “an indescribable pleasure from seeing her suffer” (18).

The countless occasions N hallucinates visions her destruction, her erosion, her fragmentation, her brittle limbs cracking like ice, are repetitive, the symptoms of N’s deep trauma, of atavistic desires to possess and control.  She too is scarred by her experiences.

“Her face wore its victim’s look, which was of course psychological, the result of injuries she had received in childhood; I saw it was the faintest possible hint of bruising on the extremely delicate, fine, white skin in the region of eyes and mouth.  It was madly attractive to me in a certain kind of way […] At the moment, in what I took for an optical delusion, the black interior of the house prolonged itself into a black arm and hand, which shot out and grasped her so violently that her shocked white faces cracked to pieces and she tumbled into the dark” (28).

N is caught between two opposite forces.  The first, possessing G who flees from all meaningful connections, almost resigned to the destruction of the world.  The second, his study of “an almost extinct race of singing lemurs known as Indris, living in the forest trees of a remote tropical island.”  He is transported away from the destruction of the world by their melodious voices: “I began speaking to them, forgetting myself in the fascination of the subject” (21).  N is drawn to them.  G is repulsed by them: “To me, the extraordinary jungle music was lovely, mysterious magical.  To her it was a sort of torture” (25).  He wishes to return to the land of the singing lemurs and laments his inability to separate himself from his visions of possession: “She prevented me, holding me back with thin arms” (101).

After G flees from her husband, N runs after her possessed by horrific images of her death and destruction: “She escaped from the forest at length only to see the fjord waiting for her.  An evil effluence rose from the water, something primitive, savage, demanding victims, hungry for a human sacrifice” (71).

Flight, pursuit, flight, capture, escape, pursuit, flight.  As if caught up in some post-apocalyptical performance of Ravel’s La valse (1919-20), a macabre dance of death, N and G—possessed by primordial forces—move across an imprecise allegorical landscape at the end of the world where powers shift and mutate and realign and decay.

As the destructive dance continues, fragmentation occurs:  N cannot separate himself from the captors who hold G “I fought to retain my own identity, but all my efforts failed to keep up apart.  I continually found I was not myself, but him.  At one moment I actually seemed to be wearing his clothes” (131).  But they are both trapped in this pattern.  The visions of Indris and the melodious lemurs are but memories crushed too by the end.

Final Thoughts

Filled with unsettling yet gorgeous images, Ice (1967) is a triumph of 60s experimental literature with post-apocalyptical undertones.  N’s visions of G’s destruction unnerve and cut deep.  The dreamlike repetition, the interchangeability of the landscapes, N’s hallucinations and obsessions, are like some second skin you cannot shed.  A melodious rumination on destruction…

“Day by day the ice was creeping over the curve of the earth, unimpeded by seas or mountains.  Without haste or pause, it was steadily moving nearer, entering and flattening cities, filling craters from which boiling laval poured.  There was no way of stopping the icy giant battalions, marching in relentless order across the world, crushing, obliterating, destroying everything in their path” (131).

For more book reviews consult the INDEX

[kavan_ice[5].jpg]

(Paul Delvaux’s cover for the 1973 edition)

(Uncredited cover for the 1997 edition)

(Uncredited cover for the 2006 edition)

52 Replies to “Book Review: Ice, Anna Kavan (1967)”

    1. As with Ballard she is not really interested in the science behind her world—think The Drowned World. This is definitely literary and highly experimental and that will frighten some people away. And all the Freudian stuff… but then again, Kavan was in and out of asylums and was friends with some of her psychiatrists.

  1. I’m much more interested in ideas and experimentation than tech info, as far as my Sci-Fi goes. Digging around online for some biographical details and I gotta say, she could be my new obsession. A fascinating, if tremendously troubled, life, that undoubtedly must suffuse her work. Really looking forward to exploring her catalog. Thanks, again!

    1. I recommend reading the book I used for some background info in my review — Francis Booth’s Amongst Those Left: The British Experimental Novel 1940-1980. Nice contextualization of her life and literary context.

      1. Yes, I did, and loved it! Scored a copy of this and agree about the JG Ballard comparison entirely. Have been looking for her other titles (which are apparently not sci-fi), and can’t find any, Wanted to ask you if you had any Philip K Dick, reality bending sorta sci-fi ideas . You have been my go to for sci-fi recommendations, and i’m thankful for your input, Just read Solaris, Hard To Be A God is next, and want more Russian Sci-Fi, as well

      2. Yes, I’ve read most of PKD’s canon (but before I had this site). My favorite are Martian Time-Slip, Ubik, Man in the High Castle, and his short stories (“The Preserving Machine” and “Impostor” etc).

      1. Must have been a uniform edition from Picador. They used another Delvaux image for “Sleep Has His House”.

  2. The cover to the Picador edition (which I have) is from around the early 1980’s, I think (without looking it up) but I definitely know who the artist is. It is Paul Delvaux, the Belgian Surrealist, whom Ballard highly admired: he had a large, painted copy of one of Delvaux’s most famous pictures, hanging on his wall at his home in Shepperton. I still haven’t read this yet, after many years, but I know it will be an absolute classic…

  3. Oops, your blog in my window hadn’t updated before I posted the above comment about Delvaux – I see you found this out from someone else. I am surprised it is 1973, though (maybe I have a reprint edition from the 80’s). If you are interested in a great book about Kavan’s life (which I have read half of, so far) then get this: ‘A Stranger on Earth’ by Jeremy Reed (UK publisher)

    http://www.peterowenpublishers.com/books/a-stranger-on-earth-the-life-and-work-of-anna-kavan/

      1. Yes, if you do enough covers featuring full frontal women, one of them is bound to fit the subject matter sooner or later. 😉

  4. It’s possible that Anna Kavan was unaware of what was being published in the sf genre when “Ice” was published.Olaf Stapleton,wrote “Star Maker” and “Last and First Men” at the same time when the sf pulp magazines he shunned were flourishing.The resemblance between them,was really only superficial,and the fact that they did,can probably be attributed to parallel development.Unlike him however,and like J.G.Ballard,who was writing at the same time as her,there were no obvious sf troupes in “Ice”.

    Kavan then probably knew nothing of Ballard,who wrote within the sf genre,and whose “The Crystal World” was published a year before “Ice”.In both,unexpected ecological changes reflect the inner states of minds.While in TCW the catastrophe is unnatural,creating surreal images,”Ice” looks inwards at the true human condition.As Brian Aldiss says in “Trillion Year Spree”,”it goes as far beyond Ballard as Ballard does beyond Wyndham”.

    This seems contrary to the background of a new ice age that is supposed to be central to the novel’s existence,but instead chronicles human obsession and frailty.The strange ice maiden with silver hair and pale skin though,who appears to be a spirit of nature,a sort of ice fairy,would seem to mirror the catastrophe,without being the direct source of it.Ballard’s strange disasters are concrete and his landscapes have a direct effect on the happenings of his weird dramas.

    This disparity however,is evocative of the strange brilliance of an unexplained world and society.A very real and emotional telling of uncertain morality is played out.The author’s findings are raw and unflinching

    The “Narrator’s” quest however,also can’t be taken seriously without direct reference to the ice plague.It seems it is having a devastating effect upon his mind,and is projecting the hallucinations he is experiencing.It seems he is already impaired,but the new ice age,is it appears,creating vistas he is creating cerebrally.

    His persecution of the girl though,is no worst than her plight,he being it seems,just as much a victim of his perpetual quest as she.His other obsession,for the Madagascan Lemurs,is revealed as good character of something absolutely purer.The author obviously intended to show the inescapable dilemma of human predicament.

    Contrasted to this,is a totalitarian government ruled by the “Warden”,the husband apparently of the girl,who she hates more than the central character.It is corrupt,and the encroaching glacial nightmare,might be a divine nemesis it could be said.There is political unrest and rebellion caused by it,and necessitates change.A new world order is slowly being formed by the powerful metaphysics of ecological disaster.

    The author created a strange but familiar novel,that is just as terrible in it’s beauty,as Ballard’s jeweled African forests in “The Crystal World”.It is inward,strange and perpetually haunting.

    1. Thank you Richard for the comment. I really really enjoyed this one. As much as The Drowned World which has long been one of my favorite novels. I will reply to other elements of your comment later tonight when I have more time. Thanks!

      1. “The Drowned World” was written and published five or six years before “Ice”.It seems Ballard was already carving out territory that would be trod by Ms Kavan.If she wrote in isolation oblivious of TDW,then parallel development is indeed remarkable.There were obviously powerful scientific and social changes in the 1960s that would have influenced two authors writing so far apart to resemble each other,but of course,she had her own distinct ideas.

        Ballard’s TDW,was first published as a paperback in 1962,when he was living in Canada,but the following year it was published in Britain in hardcover to quite riotous applause.It was I suppose,a very daring novel to have been out by a paperback house at that time.

      2. I brought up the comparison to Ballard more as a way of explaining a general feel that is similar. The 60s saw an incredible number of experimental post-apocalyptical novels. Kavan’s voice is very distinct, her influences and life story add unique style to her work… We can only push the the Ballard comparison so far.

  5. Yes she was definitely distinct,as was Ballard,with both following their own particular pathways.I was just trying to point out,that he he creating strange,vivid environments like the one that forms the essential background to “Ice”,some time before she wrote the novel.

    There were I think patterns emerging during that decade,that caused unrelated authors’ unique stuff to superficially resemble one another.Ballard,writing within the sf genre,was very different to nearly everybody else who wrote within it’s walls.

  6. Just discovered this review site and find that your latest review is of Anna Kavan’s Ice. I first read Ice in the 70s, (that Picador edition which I still have), and was bowled away. I have collected Kavan’s work over the years and she never fails to satisfy, infuriate and mystify. Readers wanting to explore her work should know that she wrote a number of conventional novels in the 20s and 30s. Following treatment for mental illness, she published a series of stories called “Asylum Piece”, From then on, her work became less conventional. In the UK, her work has been published by Peter Owen and they have unearthed a number of works which were not issued in her lifetime. Amongst these is “Mercury”, which is a kind of first draft for Ice. “A Bright Green Field” and ” My Soul in China” contain short stories some of which have a science fictional element. “Sleep Has His House” conveys a narrative entirely in dreams – it’s difficult and not exactly forthcoming in what it is about. The Anna Kavan society’s website is worth a look:

    http://www.annakavan.org.uk/

    1. I hope you enjoy the site!

      Yeah, I read quite a lot about her in the book I cited in the review — Francis Booth’s Amongst Those Left: The British Experimental Novel 1940-1980.

      Which work of hers should I read next? (I realize that she did not write that much fiction with SF elements).

      1. Mercury is, I think, a dry run for Ice and is certainly an interesting read. Best short story anthology is Julia and the Bazooka, which deals with her mental health issues and her heroin addiction and contains some startling pieces. The stories in Asylum Piece were written when she was growing out of the naturalistic early novels. They are not science fiction, more like Kafka with mental health issues. As I said, the anthologies A Bright Green Field and My Soul in China contain science fictional stories but these may no longer be in print. As I also said, Sleep Has His House is difficult as it is entirely written in dream imagery. Best to read slowly and with some breaks. Eagle’s Nest is an unsettling piece, set in an unnamed country and with some very Kafkaesque elements. A Scarcity of Love is a revenge novel, in that it is about her mother. More naturalistic than the others and not at all flattering to her mother. Guilty was not published in her lifetime. It is a story about a young man whose country is invaded and who is protected by an official collaborating with the new regime. This prefigures Ice in a number of ways, particularly as the young man protects, or believes he protects, his wife. As a counterbalance, there are her two novels set in Burma – Let Me Alone and Who Are You. Let Me Alone is an early piece, featuring a young woman called Anna Kavan and her disastrous marriage. Who Are You is a later piece, telling of a young married woman in Burma who has an adulterous affair. The later book is more interesting, repeating scenes from different points of view and having a feverish quality to the text. Commentators often mention Kafka, when discussing Kavan but rarely, if ever, mention Nabokov. But these novels are often set in nameless countries with oppressive regimes, similar to those portrayed in Invitation to a Beheading, Bend Sinister and Pale Fire. It should also be said that Kavan is less fun than Nabokov!

        To sum up, try the short story anthologies first, particularly Julia and the Bazooka. Then the later novels and, if you are feeling in the need for a particular challenge, Sleep Has His House.

      2. “The later book is more interesting, repeating scenes from different points of view and having a feverish quality to the text.”

        Yep “Who Are You” could very easily be a Robbe-Grillet experiment, with its second half repeating the first half with subtle modulations. The style and imagery are intense and sweaty.

        My favourite Kavan is “Sleep Has His House”. The style is intimate, often addressing the reader directly. The imagery is subjective and visual; scenes might be described as Chinese watercolour washes; in my ideal world there would be an edition with Mervyn Peake illustrations.

        I can see a strong influence on Christopher Priest.

  7. I’ve known of “Julia and the Bazooka”,since I first read “Ice”.I and others here,would be interested to know if she read anything published within the sf genre.Possibly,she read Olaf Stapleton in the 1930s or 40s,for all I know,but who as I’ve already said,had his unique stuff published alongside respected mainstream authors.

    A fair quantity of books published within the science fiction genre,can be called speculative or slipstream fiction.This can be said of J.G. Ballard,who began his writing career in generic sf magazines and books,before his slow ascent to mainstream greatness.The same stories and novels that once carried the sf label,will be found on the shelves alongside established modern classics,they formerly would not have shared company with,although the Gollancz sf classics series publish their own editions.I suppose it depends on what you want to buy.

    It is difficult to define actual science fiction,but much easier to place authors within the non-generic speculative and slipstream fiction.This of course also applies to Ms Kavan,whose novel,”Ice”,has more in common with Kafka than Stapleton,but as I’ve said,bore only a superficial likeness to the “pulp sf” around at the time he was writing.

    She seems to have written several very good books though,regardless of what you call them.

    1. Brian Aldiss’s introduction to Ice is instructive. He states:

      “Peter Owen had told her that she had written science fiction; like Monsieur Jourdain in Moliere’s play, who did not know that he had been speaking prose, she was surprised. At first, she rejected the idea. Slowly, she came to like it. She knew that SF was up-and-coming; she felt up-and-coming too! I fancy she always like anything that was a novelty.”

      Science fiction in the mid 60s still had a taint of trash, as far as the literary establishment were concerned. Peter Owen was her publisher at the time and the firm continue to publish and champion her books. I think her stories, when they were published at all, were published in “literary” magazines like Horizon and that she probably had no knowledge of science fiction magazines.

      1. Brian Aldiss,in his history of sf,”Trillion Year Spree”,he compares Anna Kavan to Mary Shelley and her novel “Frankinstein”,and states,that like her,she wrote science fiction without knowing it.In her case,it’s even more pertinent,since there was no such genre then!It’s more to do with state of mind I think.”Ice” like “Frankinstein”,can also be said to Gothic in nature and origin.

        The best authors writing within the enclosure of generic sf in the 1960s,were equal to those in mainstream literature,such as Ms Kavan I think,but unlike her,found restrictions upon what they could write.As I’ve said though,”Dangerous Visions” published in 1967,shot through with a dangerous maverick streak,changed much of this.Like her,the decade also see the emergence of woman sf authors gaining recognition,such as Ursula LeGuin,and again like her,others outside it,such as Angela Carter,with her gothic novel,”Heroes and Villians”.

        Science or Speculative fiction,could be defined as a state and sign of the times perhaps.

      2. I agree. There were many writers at that time who were at least aware of SF. In that same Trillion Year Spree, Aldiss cites a variety of authors whose work showed influences of SF – Amis, Bowen, Beckett, Borges, Nabokov, Angus Wilson and so on. I think many writers at the time were genuinely interested in SF. I am not sure this was reciprocated. In one of her Children of Violence novels, Doris Lessing’s heroine finds that her father in law reads SF. He is embarrassed but she is simply intrigued. In her autobiography, Lessing tells of how she went to a pub where SF writers gathered and was greeted with suspicion and hostility. No author’s names are mentioned but her description reminded me of Arthur C Clarke and the White Hart. Lessing, incidentally, was a great admirer of Anna Kavan.

        I was going to say I’m not so sure of the influence of Dangerous Visions. Changes within the genre were happening through New Worlds and through the Judith Merrill anthologies. Recognition of the genre from the likes of Amis, Angus Wilson and Leslie Fiedler, also helped. I read the anthology as a teenager in the early 70s with a great deal of enthusiasm and excitement but was surprised by how much of it was straight forward and not at all outre. However, writing this has prompted me to look at my edition. Originally published in USA in 1967, first published in the UK in 1970 and finally published in my paperback edition in 1974. I think an awful lot happened during those seven years and the genre had changed enormously, as had mainstream writing, the status of women writers, black writers, concrete poets, performance poets and so on.

        As I said: I agree. It was an exciting time for literature and the emergence of SF – science fiction, speculative fiction or, if you must, scifi – was part and parcel of that and was certainly part of that zeitgeist.

  8. Especially Borges I think,like Kafka,would have an influence on genre sf authors.Their influence would shape those inside sf,who in turn would be read by those they emulated.

    Yes,”New Worlds” was definitely going where sf writers formerly feared to tread,but this was in Britain.Apart from as you say,the Judith Merrill anthologies,there was no counterpart in America,and even she and they would have found restrictions that stopped them breaching exciting,new territory..DV wasn’t frightened to tackle risque material,and were exponential in changing the face of the genre.After so many years though,it’s shock factor may have dulled,but it contained pieces of substance that will last I think.

    1. I imagine that many of the “new wave” sf novelists were also influenced by the “nouvelle roman” gang across the channel. I was struck by this after reading Aldiss’ Report on Probability A. For instance Alan Robbe-Grillet’s work was being translated into English almost as soon as it was published in the 50s and 60s – though I imagine it is not much read these days except by sad sacks like me!
      I mention this because Kavan has been described as influenced by the new novelists and maybe even categorised as such? Both the new novelists and the new wave sf strikes me as a sort of “mainstreaming” of the novelistic/literary/artistic experiments of the first half of the 20th century. The avant-garde being domesticated after a fashion.
      Looking forward to a copy of Ice arriving in the mail, nonetheless!

      1. Not all authors were accepted by mainstream literature of course.Those that weren’t,did creative stuff within genre sf that wouldn’t have been allowed or found expression in the other place.The British and American “new wave” along with authors such as Philip K.Dick,who was also radical without adhering to any particular group or school,were developing their own non-generic stuff that was influenced by and in turn mimicked by the other realm.

        If what you say is true,then it’s not surprising that Anna Kavan’s “Ice” paralleled what was happening in the science fiction genre,particularly Ballard,even if only superficially similar.

      2. Another influence is TV. In “The Case of Anna Kavan” by David Callard, a letter from Anna Kavan to her publisher where she states: “How interesting that your reader finds the writing a mixture of Kafka and the Avengers – this expresses quite accurately the effect I was aiming at.” The Avengers does not refer to the Marvel Comics franchise but to a British TV series about two secret agents fighting off various threats to the UK. Callard terms the book a metaphysical thriller and states “this, in such books as John Fowles’s The Magus, in certain of the belatedly discovered novels of Hermann Hesse, even, on a popular level, in Patrick McGoohan’s The Prisoner, was set to be one of the more compelling forms which the sixties, not a vintage literary decade, was to generate or rediscover.” Callard also reckons that she was a fan of Dr Who, which in its 60s incarnation had some very offbeat story lines.

        I suspect that it is also down to where a writer felt happiest selling their story. Ballard started off in the science fiction markets and his work fell very happily into the New Worlds stable. Some ten years later, in the mid 70s, I was purchasing a magazine called Bananas. It was edited by Emma Tennant and was intended to profile new prose. Among the authors who regularly contributed were Angela Carter, Thomas M Disch, John Sladek, Ted Hughes, Ruth Fainlight, Claud Cockburn and, yes, J G Ballard. Exactly the mix of science/speculative fiction writers, mainstream authors and fellow travellers like Carter who were happily publishing in their separate interest magazines in the 60s. I feel that Anna Kavan would have been very happy in their company.

  9. I never make any claims for tv’s influence on sf.I have to say that it’s outward effects have been rather negative on the written stuff we call a genre.

    I can well understand the coming together of authors from widely disparate sources,but whose writing styles and concerns strangely imitated one another.

    1. Richard, but TV still is an important part of the historical context in which something is written, conceived. You might dismiss the influence of TV but it is hard not to dismiss the impact of Star Trek or Star Wars (on other decades of course) etc.

      1. I suppose you’re right Joachim.The series you mention would run parallel to what was actually being written at the time,if having no impact on the singular movements within literary sf in modern times.

        During the 1960s in Britain,there were at least two different tv series that adapted stories by sf authors,but neither I don’t think,lasted all that long.The more popular shows that were produced for a younger audience would have far outdistanced them in simple appeal.

        I’ve often felt a bit sad about the perception the media gives of the wider spectrum of sf.That what is created inside and isolated from the popular world of entertainment,would be better without the label.Just think Anna Kavan.

  10. Have you ever posted a list of Best Overlooked End of the World novels from the ones you’ve reviewed for this page? I do like these sorts of books but most are unoriginal junk. The good ones like Level 7 seem neglected, while some lesser ones get all the attention. This one looks good, am ordering it.

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