4.75/5 (Near Masterpiece)
In 1968, the moody Canadian psychedelic pop group The Poppy Family released “Of Cities and Escapes,” a haunting song of urban emptiness. The song’s narrator intones: “I live in a one-room apartment, with windows on one side / I stare through the glass ‘cross the water, to where the big, ugly city lies.” In the second verse, later sampled by Deltron 3030 on “Madness” (2000), the narrator cannot escape the death spiral: “I’m caught in the grip of the city, madness and smog.” Twilight City (1974, trans. Joan Tate, 1993), by Norwegian novelist Knut Faldbakken (1941-), delves into a similar dystopian urban gloom. The refugees of a decaying city dust off the entangling membranes of lost paths and the weight of melancholy souls and attempt to chart a new beginning in the city dump.
Brief Plot Summary/Analysis
In an unnamed country, the metropolis of Sweetwater–“an eruption of urban geography” (2) possessed by an “ever-growing urban sprawl” (23)–suffers under the effects of global warming, industrialization, and malignant societal decay.
Allan, his eighteen-year-old wife Lisa, and their four-year-old son named Boy decide to leave the city for the Dump, a long, narrow strip of land filled with abandoned buildings and thousands of tons of garbage that “now lay like dunes in a desert, or lava, crumbling mountains of soil and gravel and stones sloping down towards the dead brackish water” (9). A primitive desire to seek out “new pastures” propels him (69).
Once he sets up his camper between mounds of trash, Allan feels revitalized by the “opportunity of doing something, [and he] felt a sense of freedom” (12) for the first time in his life. He finds himself living a version of his nebulous childhood dream of escaping to the “South Sea Islands” (33). But unlike a distant isle away far away from civilization, the Dump is an extension of the city. His one earlier trip with Lisa into the countryside had terrified him. The Dump with its cast off artifacts of civilization maintains a comforting “concrete presence” (33).
Soon their solitary existence is interrupted by a series of encounters with other refugees. One day Lisa discovers a man amongst the waste. She begs Allan, “perhaps the first time she had experienced something she could show him,“ to come with her and investigate (51). They come across the residence of a former abortion doctor, Anton Fischer, and his dying wife, amongst the ruins. He has small plots with vegetables and sells scrap for a living. In the Doc, Lisa finds a mentor. And when Allan is away in the city working at a gas station, they bond like father and daughter. The Boy, on one of his scavenging trips, meets the mute Run-Run and Felix, on the run from an officer of the Peacekeeping Force. And Allan soon encounters Mary Diamond… a woman he cannot possess.
City as Refuse, Refuse as City
The approaching equilibrium between the decaying city and the Dump, that contains everything “that surrounded and decided human life” (9), is the dominate organizing metaphor of Twilight Country. Faldbakken explains “The anarchy of the Dump was creeping in, showing itself in the cracks, consuming the city, slowly dissolving it into individual basic elements. Allan suddenly realized that these two opposites, the metropolis and the rubbish tip, would one day be identical” (45). While the Dump and the City might someday be indistinguishable, Allan’s conceives of his act of setting out as revolt against the malaise that permeates his soul.
Smiley, Mary Diamond’s pimp, counters Allan’s primitivist formulation with his own nihilistic theory that nothing can be created in the waste: “We are the distillation of what has gone wrong in a society. How could we create anything new and different?” (158). Those who live in the Dump might survive despite their wretched existence but will not create. For him the Dump, “the excrement of technological civilization” (156), is but a vantage point to watch Sweetwater burn.
Over the course of the novel, Allan’s trips to work at the gas station illuminate the city’s palpable entropic slide and his own shifting perception. Less and less people seem to require fuel and car services or want to travel at all. To Allan the city, while never an antagonistic force, increasingly becomes “unrecognizable, as if the content was slowly being filtered out and replaced by something new, a cold and hostile strangeness” (130). Soon the city feels artificial and repellent (146) while in the Dump he “felt his vital force growing stronger” (152).
Faldbakken deploys disturbing signifiers of Sweetwater’s destructive moral and societal slide. Allan’s marriage to Lisa when she was fourteen is the perfect example. No one in the novel, other than a few comments about her youth, point out amorality of Allan’s predatory actions. Their son, Boy, does not even receive a real name!
I am fascinated by densely metaphoric SF “survival” stories within the urban expanse: from J. G. Ballard’s Concrete Island (1974) to Vincent King’s “Defence Mechanism” (1966). And Twilight Country is one of the best. This is a disturbing novel–especially the relationship between Allan and Lisa. Allan is a deeply flawed character with a terrible possessive fury bubbling beneath that surface (191).
The masterstroke of Faldbakken’s Twilight Country is the portrayal of the Dump, a border zone containing the cast off fragments of human existence, as a generative locus. Unlike the mournful narrator in The Poppy Family’s “Of Cities and Escapes” (1968) who can only watch the city die from his window, Allan and his fellow denizens of the waste refashion the fragments into a new living community. Allan and Lisa’s camper becomes the the focal point of a new town. Sweetwater and The Dump act as a closed system. One decays into the other. One creates the other.
There’s a tangible sense of organic transformation within the characters who inhabit the Dump. Allan moves from his rote motions of existence and possession to a sense of purpose and meaning as he attempts to provide for his family and meets a woman he cannot control–Mary Diamond. Lisa breaks free from her husband’s domination and depressive unease and finds meaning in her interactions with Dr. Anton Fischer, the father she never had. The Doc finally has someone to pass on his knowledge and to care for. Boy, often in tandem with the mute Run-Run, hones his talent for scavenging for birds and supplies and weans himself from soft drinks and candy bars. The clashing philosophies of Allan, an impulsive primitivist sort, and Smiley, a Nero watching “Rome burn” (158), reach their own détente in the daily struggle for survival.
My good run with Scandinavian science fiction continues. Twilight Country joins Sven Holm’s Termush (1967, trans. 1969) and Anders Bodelsen’s Freezing Down (1969, trans. 1971) among my favorite reads of the last two years. I have acquired the sequel–Sweetwater (1976, trans. Joan Tate, 1994)–and plan on reading it soon.
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16 thoughts on “Book Review: Twilight Country, Knut Faldbakken (1974, trans. Joan Tate, 1993)”
I have not read him, but he is very talked about in Sweden; the swedes like SF, if the text is not named Science Fiction(!).
No problem. Is he best known for this work or for his non-SF novels?
Well… But I see swedish litt-bloggers writing on these two books recently. So they are not forgotten. I must check out how our SF-community recieved them at the time; Roland Adlerberth in (Sam J Lundwalls) JVM for ex. RA wrote on books already in our first SF mag Häpna! (=Get Stunned!) 1954-1966. (Arnold contributed with drawings.)
“I must check out how our SF-community received them at the time” — let me know what you find!
very heavy sigh
I’ve told you and told you about putting hard-to-find books on my TBR list, Dr. B. Sinful wicked shame on you!
I’ve already convinced Rachel at SF in Translation to buy a copy. Get one before the price skyrockets! haha. The cheapest I can find at the moment is $20 with shipping — which is around what I spent. Considering the price of new books, I’m willing to spend that occasionally on vintage SF.
…except the authors aren’t benefiting…that’s what’s always bothered me when buying a used book for over $5 or $6. The shipping company and the vendor are the only ones profiting. Although the UK’s new royalties-from-used-books scheme seems interesting, I can’t see it taking off.
But if there isn’t a new reprinting there isn’t anything we can do. It’s read the forgotten author or don’t read the forgotten author — alas.
When I browse Abebooks I try to buy from small booksellers vs. Thirftbooks. I’m not always successful but supporting them is worth it.
It’s a small step but a solid one in the proper direction.
Oh all vintage SF works, I’d wager those in translation are probably the least likely to receive reprints and eBooks.
Just finished reading it, and my god, was it dark! And very relevant to our current situation. The setting didn’t feel dated at all and could be anywhere in the near future. It kind of reminded me of ‘Random Acts of Senseless Violence’ by Jack Womack, especially seeing the gradual decay of society and how almost nonchalant the main character is to all the chaos around him.
Did you know there’s a 1988 film adaptation? I can’t find a subtitled version, though.
Glad you enjoyed it!
I just procured Womack’s first SF novel–Ambient (1987). I’ve heard good things about Random Acts of Senseless Violence.
I did not know there was a 1988 film adaptation! I’d watch if it a version existed with subtitles. Let me know if you have any future luck tracking down.
Tempted by the Twilight Country sequel Sweetwater? I’ve procured the sequel and plan on reading it soon(ish).
As you were intrigued by this novel, I found another Scandinavian SF work that might appeal to you — P. C. Jersild’s After the Flood (1982). I posted the review earlier this morning: https://sciencefictionruminations.com/2022/05/30/book-review-after-the-flood-p-c-jersild-1982-trans-1986/
Thanks for the follow-up pointer to your review! I’ve put it on my wishlist for now. Although dark, it sounds like it would be bearable (for me) because of the character arcs you describe. I know (from your previous comment thread that led me here) you don’t care if characters are likeable, but I need a little something to attach to in characters. We can’t always make things better (so much bad in the world now, maybe getting worse), but it still matters how we relate to the world and each other. Thanks again!
Regardless of Adam’s flaws, his desire to remake his life is classic midlife crisis mode — and even if he’s deeply flawed, that desire to remake, and in a sense redo, is seductive. So yes, he’s deeply flawed but there’s something appealing about his aimlessness in the city.